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Next lesson. Current timeTotal duration Video transcript Let's think about what type of reaction we might be able to get going if we had some methane and some molecular chlorine. So if we just let this be and we didn't heat it up or put in any UV light into this reaction, pretty much nothing will happen. Both of these molecules are reasonably happy being the way they are.
But if we were to add heat into it, if we were to start making all the atoms and molecules vibrate more and bump into each other more, or we were to add energy in the form of UV light, what we could start doing is breaking some of these chlorine-chlorine bonds.
Out of all of the bonds here, those are the weakest. That would be the most susceptible to breakage. So let's say we were to add some heat, what would happen? So let's see. Let me draw the valence electrons of each of these chlorines. This chlorine has one, two, three, four, five, six, seven valence electrons, and this chlorine over here has one, two, three, four, five, six, seven valence electrons. Now, when you add heat to this reaction, enough for these guys to vibrant away from each other, for this bond to break, what's going to happen, and we haven't drawn an arrow like this just yet, but what's going to happen is that each of these chlorines, this bond is going to break.
Each of these chlorines are just going to take their part of the bond.
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So this guy on the left, he's just going to take his electron. And notice, I draw it with this half arrow. It looks like a fish hook. It's just half an arrowhead. This means that this electron is just going to go back to this chlorine, and this other magenta electron is going to go back to the right chlorine, so we can draw it like that. If it was up to me, I would have drawn it more like this.
I would have drawn it more like this to show that that electron just goes back to the chlorine, but the convention shows that you can show that half of the bond is going back to the entire atom. Now, after this happens, what will everything look like? So we still have our methane. Let me draw it a little bit.
So we still have our methane here. And all that's happened is, because we've put energy into the system, we've been able to break this bond. The molecular chlorine has broken up into two chlorine atoms. So we have the one on the left over here, and then we have the one on the right. And let me draw the left's valence electrons.
It has one, two, three, four, five, six, seven. I just flipped it over so that the lone electron is on the left-hand side right here. And then you have the guy on the right. He has one, two, three, four, five, six, seven valence electrons. Now that each of these guys have an unpaired electron, they're actually very, very, very reactive.
And we actually call any molecule that has an unpaired electron and is very reactive a free radical.
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So both of these guys now are free radicals. And actually, the whole topic of this video is free radical reactions. Both of these guys are free radicals. And you've probably heard the word free radical before. In the context of nutrition, that you don't want free radicals running around. It's not necessarily chlorine that they're talking about, but they're talking about molecules that have unpaired electrons. They'll react with some of your cell's machinery, maybe even with your DNA, maybe cause mutations that might lead to things like cancer.
So that's why people think you shouldn't have free radicals in your body. But as soon as we form these free radicals, in this step right here, where we put energy in the system to break this bond, we call this the initiation step. Let me put this. We used energy here. This was endothermic.
We use energy. This right here is the initiation step. And what we're going to see in general with free radical reactions is you need some energy to get it started. But once it gets started, it kind of starts this chain reaction. And as one free radical reacts with something else, it creates another free radical, and that keeps propagating until really everything has reacted. And that's why these can be so dangerous or so bad for biological systems.
So I've told you that they react a lot. So how will they react now? Well, this guy wants to form a pair with someone else. And maybe if he swipes by this methane in just the right way, with just enough energy, what will happen is he could take the hydrogen off of the carbon, and not just the proton, the entire hydrogen. He will form a bond with the hydrogen using the hydrogen's electrons, so they'll get together and they'll form a bond. The hydrogen will contribute one electron.
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Notice, I'm drawing the half-arrow again, so the hydrogen isn't giving away the electron to someone else. That would be a full arrow. The hydrogen is just contributing its electron to half of a bond. And then the carbon, the carbon would do the same.